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Swiss Titles

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Landammann

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landammann

Landammann
Landammann (plural Landamänner), is the German title used by the chief magistrate in certain Cantons of Switzerland and at times featured in the Head of state's style at the confederal level.

Old Swiss Confederacy
Landammann or Ammann was the elected judge and leader of the Landsgemeinde. The term existed in the high medieval period, and was continued in the Old Swiss Confederacy of the 14th to 18th centuries.

Napoleonic period

While before and after other titles, generally expressing precedence, where used, the title of the Head of State of the Swiss Confederation has been:

  • Erster Landammann (in German)/ (in French) Premier Landamman 'First official of the country': 23 November 1801 - 6 February 1802 Aloys Reding von Biberegg (b. 1765 - d. 1818); he succeeded himself as the first under the new, shorter, non-distinctive title:
  • Landammänner/ Landammans:
    • 6 February 1802 - 20 April 1802 Aloys Reding von Biberegg
    • 20 April 1802 - 5 July 1802 Vinzenz Rüttimann (acting) (b. 1769 - d. 1844)
    • 5 July 1802 - 8 March 1803 Johann Rudolf Dolder (b. 1753 - d. 1807)
    • August 1802 - September 1802 Aloys Reding von Biberegg (again; now in rebellion)
  • under French occupation, when emperor Napoleon I Bonaparte styled himself 'Mediator' (equivalent to his title Protector in the German Confederatio of the Rhine) of the Swiss (at first Helvetic) Confederation, the actual Head of the Confederation was simply the chief magistrate of the canton hosting the Swiss Diet(Helvetic confederal parliament), with the title Landammann der Schweiz (in German)/ Landamman de la Suisse (in French)/ Landamano della Svizzera (in Italian), usually for a year, 10 March 1803 - 31 December 1813
  • Louis d’Affry (Freiburg), 10 March – 31 December 1803 (1st time)
  • Niklaus Rudolf von Wattenwyl (Bern), 1804 (1st time)
  • Peter Glutz-Ruchti (Solothurn), 1805
  • Andreas Merian (Basel), 1806
  • Hans von Reinhard (Zürich), 1807 (1st time)
  • Vinzenz Rüttimann (Luzern), 1808
  • Louis d’Affry (Freiburg), 1809 (2nd time)
  • Niklaus Rudolf von Wattenwyl (Bern), 1810 (2nd time)
  • Heinrich Daniel Balthasar Grimm von Wartenfels (Solothurn), 1811
  • Peter Burckhardt (Basel), 1812
  • Hans von Reinhard (Zürich), 1813 (2nd time)

Contemporary Switzerland

If the office is held by a woman, she is addressed as Frau Landammann (Ms. Landammann). The French version is Landamman (plural Landammans), the Italian Landamano (plural Landamani)

Today, Landammann still is the title of the president of the cantonal executive in the following Swiss cantons :

Some Swiss towns in those cantons use the equivalent title Stadtammann for the mayor.



Vogt

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vogt_(Switzerland)

Vogt
Vogt (plural Vögte) was a title and office in the Old Swiss Confederacy, inherited from the feudal system of the Holy Roman Empire, corresponding to the English reeve. The German term Vogtei is ultimately a loan from Latin [ad]vocatia.

Vogtei
There were two basic types of VogteienObervogteien (also Landgerichteinnere Vogteien) were administered by reeves (ObervögteVenner) residing in the city, usually elected from among the city parliament, who visited their territories on certain fixed days to act as judges or collect taxes. They were represented by local lieutenants (Untervögte).

Reichsvogt
Reichsvogt was the term for a Vogt, that was nominated by the king as the representative of the Holy Roman Empire, and was especially in today's Switzerland in the High Middle Ages a very influential position.

Landvogt

The second type of Vogtei was a Landvogtei where the  Landvogt ("sheriff" or "bailiff") resided permanently, usually in a castle within the Landvogtei known as Landvogteischloss. There are several buildings still so identified, e.t. in Baden and in Willisau. A Landvogt was an official acting on behalf of the Confederacy or a one or several cantons, ruling a condominium (Gemeine Herrschaft) of several cantons, notably acting as a judge for capital crimes (Blutgericht). The title first appears in 1415. The cantons took turns in appointing a Landvogt for a period of two years. 

In exceptional cases, the population of the Landvogtei was allowed to elect their own  Landvogt. This concerned Oberhasli in particular, which was nominally a subject territory of Bern, but enjoyed a special status as a military ally. 

The office of Landvogt was abolished in 1798, with the foundation of the Helvetic Republic.

The notion of fremde Vögte ("foreign reeves") is central to Swiss national mythology, since the early Confederacy in the 14th century is commonly believed to have had the main purpose to expel imperial judges. One of the core points of the Federal Charter of 1291 is that the Eidgenossen "will accept or receive no judge in the aforesaid valleys, who shall have obtained his office for any price, or for money in any way whatever, or one who shall not be a native or a resident with us." The "foreign Vögte" were replaced by native Ammänner called into office by the Landsgemeinde

The term fremde Vögte is still in use polemically in Swiss politics, particularly by conservatives, in the context of Switzerland and the European Union.



Pannerherr (Bannerherr)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knight_banneret

Knight banneret

knight banneret, sometimes known simply as banneret, was a medieval knight ("a commoner of rank")[1] who led a company of troops during time of war under his own banner (which was square-shaped, in contrast to the tapering standard or the pennon flown by the lower-ranking knights) and was eligible to bear supportersin English heraldry.

The military rank of a knight banneret was higher than a knight bachelor (who fought under another's banner), but lower than an earl or duke; the word derives from the French banneret, from bannire, banner, elliptical for seigneur banneret or chevalier banneret, Medieval Latin banneretus.

Under English custom the rank of knight banneret could only be conferred by the sovereign on the field of battle. There were some technical exceptions to this; when his standard was on the field of battle he could be regarded as physically present though he was not. His proxy could be regarded as a sufficient substitution for his presence.


History

As there were no standing armies (except the military orders), military service was rendered ad hoc as an obligation of a vassal, either in person and/or with a contingent raised by one's own means. This social role was crucial: a suzerain, or feudal overlord, was dependent upon his vassals to mobilise on his behalf in case of war. The only alternative was to replace knighthood as the core of military forces with mercenaries, as under a condottiere, but those often proved highly unreliable and expensive, as well as being known for changing sides for greater profit, or simply deserting and looting for themselves.

In feudalism, the rank was given to those nobles who had the right to lead their vassals into battle under their own banner. Ultimately bannerets obtained a place in the feudal hierarchy between barons and knights bachelor, which has given rise to the idea that they are the origin of King James I's order of the baronetJohn Selden, indeed, points out that the "old stories" often have baronetti for bannereti, and he points out that in France the title had become hereditary; but Selden is careful to say that "banneret hath no relation to this later title [of baronet]".[2] The title of knight banneret, with the right to display the private banner, came to be granted for distinguished service in the field. No knight banneret, says Selden, of the English custom:[3]

The creation of bannerets is traceable, according to Selden, to the time of Edward I. "Under these bannerets, diverse knights bachelor and esquires usually served; and according to the number of them, the bannerets received wages".[5] During the fourteenth century, men who had received an individual summon to parliament, but did not possess the estate of a baron or higher peers, were styled as bannerets of parliament, and were considered to be a distinct from and socially inferior to other peers. By the early fifteenth century, this distinction between baron and banneret had disappeared.[6] The last authentic instance of the creation of knights banneret was by King Charles I to several men at the Battle of Edgehill (1642) including Thomas Strickland of Sizergh for gallantry, and John Smith for rescuing the royal standard from the enemy.[3]

Whether any further bannerets were granted is debated by historians. George Cokayne notes in The Complete Peerage (1913) that King George II revived the order when he created sixteen knights bannerets on the field of the Battle of Dettingen in 1743,[a] and although his source for this, a diary entry by Miss Gertrude Savile, states "This honour had been laid aside since James I, when Baronets were instituted", which contradicts other sources,[3] a news magazine published in the same year as the battle recorded the honours.[8] Several sources, including Edward Brenton (1828) and William James (1827),[9][10] record that captains Trollope and Fairfax and were honoured with bannerets by King George III for their actions during the Battle of Camperdown (1797). However, these awards were never recorded in The London Gazette and is much more likely that these knighthoods, which first appear in formal records in December 1797 without their nature being specified,[11] were as knights bachelor.[b]

Though the title had long fallen into disuse, bannerets and their sons continued to be listed in the table of precedence until at least as late as 1870; those created by the sovereign under the Royal Standard in wartime rank above baronets, whereas those knights banneret not so created by the sovereign in person rank directly below baronets.[13]

On page 364 of the 1990 edition of Dod's Parliamentary Companion, its table of precedence, which includes various long-vacant dignities, has in position 99 "Knights Banneret, created under the royal standard in open war, the Sovereign or the Prince of Wales being present" and in position 104 "Knights Banneret, provided they be not made in the manner described at No. 99. This position was allotted to such as were created by the commanders of armies in the king's name on the open field of battle." The former class of Knights Banneret thus rank below Judges of the High Court of Justice and above younger sons of viscounts and the latter class below baronets and above "Knights of the Thistle, when below the degree of a baron".




Swiss titles

Meaning of Swiss titles

- Explanations to old typical German-Swiss titles like Landammann, Landvogt, Pannerherr etc.


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